Male infertility: Types And Its Treatment
The dream of every couple is having a baby in their life through reproduction, which is a natural process. However, some couples might face difficulties to have a baby. Sometimes, that might be due to infertility. Most of the people believe infertility problem is related to women’s. But, it is a fact that approximately 30%-40% infertility cases are due to male infertility.
Types of Male Infertility
Male infertility is categorised into three different categories that follow:
Azoospermia: Azoospermia is a medical condition associated with male infertility. Here the semen(fluid ejaculated during orgasm) of a man doesn’t contain any sperm.
Azoospermia is broadly categorized into two types:
Obstructive Azoospermia: In this condition, even though the sperm is produced inside the testicles, if there is any blockage or obstruction in the reproductive tube it prevents the sperm flowing outside, and it is said to be Obstructive Azoospermia.
Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: In this condition, there might be a problem in sperm production in the testicles, i.e. there might be no production of the sperm, or the sperm production level might be is very low. It might be as low as that the sperm can never make it out of the testicle and may stay inside the testicle only.
It is rare and out of all 5% of infertile men can be found with this condition. Azoospermia conditions might result due to surgical procedures like a vasectomy or likely due to a congenital disease, genetic or acquired.
Asthenozoospermia: Asthenozoospermia, it is a medical term, it means it is a condition where the motility of sperm(the ability of sperm to move efficiently) is affected. The sperms swim actively after entering into the vagina to reach the fallopian tubes where further fertilisation takes place.
Motility of sperm is of two types associated with the movement of individual sperm, i.e. Progressive motility and non-progressive motility.
Progressive Motility: In progressive motility, the sperm swims linearly or in large circles.
Non-progressive Motility: Here in Non-progressive motility the sperm moves irregularly or goes round and round in the same place.
According to experts 40%-50% of the sperm should be of good quality and should possess progressive motility. According to the WHO, a man have asthenozoospermia if the ejaculate posses less than 40% of sperm motility, then the sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilisation.
Asthenozoospermia may be caused due to infections, undescended testicles, testicular surgery, testicular injuries, teratozoospermia, varicocele, vasectomies, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, etc.
Oligospermia or Oligozoospermia: Oligospermia is also a male infertility problem, it is a condition of low sperm concentration (the number of sperms present in the ejaculate at orgasm) in the semen.
A healthy sperm count is mandatory for fertilisation, but sperm count varies throughout your life depending on various factors. According to WHO if the sperm concentration or sperm count is less than 15 million per ML of semen, then the condition is termed as oligospermia.
Oligospermia is divided into various types depending on the quantity of sperm present in semen that follows.
- Mild Oligospermia: If the sperm count is between 10 to 15 million per mL.
- Moderate Oligospermia: If the sperm count is between 5 to 10 million per mL
- Severe Oligospermia: If the sperm count is between 0 and 5 million per mL.
The causes may include sexually transmitted infections, ejaculation problems, hormonal problems, exposure to chemicals and metals, overheating of testicles, usage of drug and alcohol, stress and weight issues etc.
How To Treat Male Infertility?
The exact cause of male infertility is not found yet. Though the exact cause of infertility is not apparent, doctors may suggest some treatments and procedures that will result in favour of fertility.
Some of the known treatments to treat the infertile problem of men are:
Azoospermia Treatments: Azoospermia is a case where the semen lacks sperm in the ejaculate due to the blockage somewhere in the path. There are many surgical procedures to identify the blockages and remove them successfully.
Vasovasostomy(vasectomy): A vasectomy is a surgery done to reverse the previous vasectomy surgery. The treatment is quite effective in reversing the blockage. In the surgery, they connect the two ends of vas deferens which allow sperm out during ejaculation.
Varicocele: Varicocele problems (swollen veins in your scrotum) affects the quality of sperm. These problems might be treated surgically. The surgical treatment is an option for you, and there’s no evidence that varicoceles surgery can improve the quality of your sperm.
Epididymovasostomy: It is a microsurgical procedure. This surgery is performed when a blockage is found in the epididymis. Epididymal obstruction may occur due to a history of previous infections or injuries if the man has had a vasectomy or a cystic fibrosis gene.
Hypothalamic and pituitary deficiency: In some cases, male infertility is due to problems in the glands such as hypothalamus and pituitary. Following certain medications prescribed by the doctor, the fertility of a man can be restored. These problems are treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), sometimes hCG is combined with recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) in the treatment. The treatment given with hCG is also called gonadotropin treatment.
Hormonal treatments and medications: In some cases, infertility is caused due to a high or low level of specific hormones. If you consult a doctor, he might prefer you some medications or hormonal replacement in such cases.
A simple consultation can set things right for you, and you can have a happy and healthy child. It’s just a matter of time and hope. So call us now, and we’re right here just a call away, and shall be more than happy to help you. At Premier Hospitals we have an expert team of fertility specialists for both males and females, with vast experience and a success rate of 100%. So you’re in safe and hopeful hands! Walk in now!
About The Hospital:
Since the inception of Premier Hospital in 1991 till today, we have grown to unprecedented levels, due to our excellence in medical sciences and healthcare. Premier Hospital is the creation of Dr Mahesh Marda and when it was first established, was only a small, 30-bed hospital facility. Back then, we provided only secondary care to patients, but that certainly has changed in the present landscape.
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